By Peter Singer
During this quantity, a few of modern such a lot unique philosophers survey the entire box of ethics, from its origins, during the nice moral traditions, to theories of ways we should stay, arguments approximately particular moral concerns, and the character of ethics itself. The publication will be learn directly via from commencing to finish; but the inclusion of a multi-layered index, coupled with a descriptive define of contents and bibliographies of appropriate literature, signifies that the amount additionally serves as a piece of reference, either for these coming afresh to the examine of ethics and for readers already accustomed to the topic.
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491 Page xvii 44 The Significance of Evolution Michael Ruse Darwin's theory of evolution tells us that we owe our existence to millions of years of evolution in which organisms that left more descendants survived, and those that did not perished. Can we reconcile ethics with such a process? Does evolution imply that our morality should allow the weak to go under? Or more drastically, that we should reject morality altogether? 500 45 Marx against Morality Allen Wood According to Marx, the morality of a society reflects its economic basis, and serves the interests of the ruling class.
That difficulty for realism is the theme of this article. 36 Intuitionism Jonathan Dancy Intuitionism holds that claims about morality can be objectively true or false, and that we can come to know what moral principles are right in a special way, by a kind of intuition or direct awareness of their moral properties. 411 37 Naturalism Charles R. Pigden Like intuitionists, naturalists believe that moral judgements can be true or false, and can be known; but unlike intuitionists, they do not think there are any special moral facts or properties, to be known by intuition.
13, p. 64) even if, as Rousseau insisted, they had not been actually hostile to each other before colliding (Rousseau, 1762, pp. 188, 194; 1754, Part One). Survival itself, let alone social order, became possible only through rules arrived at by a reluctant bargain. ) The other acount, which is Christian, explains morality as our necessary attempt to bring our imperfect nature in line with the will of God. Its origin-myth is the Fall of Man, which has produced that imperfection in our nature in the way described again symbolically in the Book of Genesis.