A general view of the progress of ethical philosophy,: by James Mackintosh

By James Mackintosh

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Extra info for A general view of the progress of ethical philosophy,: Chiefly during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

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Therefore these structures cannot be fictions. They must be real. Consequently, a stratified ontology is required, for the theories and concepts of the sciences must be about something, must have a referent. That referent is real, which requires an epistemological foundation—the ontological independence thesis (OIT). ’—aims at: if reality, as a ground of validity that is independent of thought, functions as a criterion, then it is presupposed that reality does indeed exist independent of thought; otherwise, it could not function as such a criterion for the validity of our knowledge.

99–127, and C. Krijnen, ‘Das Soziale bei Hegel: Eine Konstruktion in Auseinandersetzung mit der kantianisierenden Transzendentalphilosophie’, in C. Krijnen and K. W. ), Gegenstandsbestimmung und Selbstgestaltung: Transzendentalphilosophie im Anschluss an Werner Flach (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2011), pp. 189–226. 9 Cf. C. -C. Schmidt am Busch and C. : Rowman & Littlefield, 2010), pp. 1–19, at p. 1. Towards an Idealist Social Ontology 39 does indeed seem to be in the making. Recognition appears to be a fundamental concept, relevant not only for understanding political issues but for our human world as a whole.

As these flat ontologies are unsatisfactory, critical realists advocate a ‘stratified’ ontology: in addition to empirical reality, immediately accessible to the senses, there is a reality of underlying structures and mechanisms, accessible only through the formation of concepts or theories. Critical realism is also correct in pointing out that a subjective ontology presupposes an objective ontology—at least in so far as objective means: not reducible to actual subjective practices. In our analysis of Hatch and Cunliffe and Scott it became clear that processes, changes, and changing constructions have to be conceived of as constructions of the same reality, that is to say, of something objective.

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