By D. M. Armstrong
This can be a examine, in volumes, of 1 of the longest-standing philosophical difficulties: the matter of universals. In quantity I David Armstrong surveys and criticizes the most ways and suggestions to the issues which have been canvassed, rejecting many of the types of nominalism and 'Platonic' realism. In quantity II he develops an incredible idea of his personal, an aim conception of universals established no longer on linguistic conventions, yet at the real and power findings of usual technology. He hence reconciles a realism approximately characteristics and kinfolk with an empiricist epistemology. the speculation permits, too, for a resounding rationalization of normal legislation as kinfolk among those universals.
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Additional resources for A Theory of Universals: Volume 2: Universals and Scientific Realism (v. 2)
Isidori Professoribus (Lugduni: Sumptibus Laurentii Durand, 1639), Tomus IV, p. 65b. On Antonio Andreas as author of the Expositio here, cf. E. Gilson, Jean Duns Scot: Introduction à ses positions fondamentales (Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. 674. 33 Suárez has explained the difference between formal and objective concepts as follows: “First, we must presuppose the common distinction between a formal and an objective concept. The formal concept is said to be the act itself or (what is the same) the ‘word’ by which the intellect conceives some thing or common character.
This question is sufﬁciently treated in the text, where ﬁrst he [Aristotle] declares64 that the force of custom is so great that often because of it fabulous things are preferred to what is true, and things which are not customary are immediately judged as foreign. Hence, it happens that because of various customs men desire different ways of learning. For some are pleased with conjectures, others with examples, others with texts, and yet others with ﬁne arguments. From this, Aristotle seems tacitly to conclude that an incontrovertible rule for learning cannot be taken from custom, but a Metaphysics Book II 45 learner must be instructed so that he inquires after and accepts each thing following the demand of the matter itself.
65 Therefore, when a custom is of this kind, the method of teaching should not be accomodated to it, but rather it should be overturned or moderated by the very efﬁcacy of that method. But sometimes a custom is very good and it is ﬁtted to sound teaching, and then the best advice is that the method of learning be accomodated to that custom. For, as Aristotle says here, what is customary is always more known. But the method of learning should be taken as far as possible from what is more known.