By Jennifer Clapp (auth.)
With the adoption of an international Bank-sponsored structural adjustment programme within the mid-1980s, Guinea underwent a dramatic switch in its financial and agricultural guidelines. The country's event over the last decade illustrates essentially the most urgent difficulties encountered by means of African international locations pursuing monetary reform. This booklet analyses those problems by means of interpreting the adjustment adventure in Guinea because it affected the country's total political economic system and the rural area specifically. It additionally locations this example in the broader context of African adjustment.
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Extra resources for Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa: Farmers, the State and the World Bank in Guinea
Rather, it was used to force the Guineans into the cash economy. " In response to this depletion of the population, the French instituted forced labour laws in the 1920s under which all Guinean men were required to provide one week of unpaid labour per annum. " Because these policies encouraged a rural-to-urban migration, conditions in the rural areas deteriorated, which only led to more people leaving the countryside to seek better conditions in neighbouring countries or urban centres, especially Conakry.
The remainder of this book examines the case of Guinea and its agricultural sector in particular over the past 15 years with special attention to the adjustment decade. While it is true that there is 'insufficient' quantitative da ta to make a firm case one way or another ab out whether adjustment has 'worked' in terms of economic indicators, there is a great deal of qualitative data which help us to understand the difficulties the country faced, political and economic, under the adjustment strategy.
While producer prices and exchange rates were found to be statistically significant factors, they did not have as large an impact as, for example, the level of government intervention in input supply, population growth, or the percentage of public investment in GDP. 72 Other factors (although difficult to quantify) identified by Cleaver and other Bank staff over the 1980s included: the country's resource base, the quality of agricultural services, the quality of donor advice, the availability of technology, the politically driven urban bias of government expenditure, land tenure systems, weather, farmer goals, infrastructure, and declining world commodity prices.