American Popular Music and Its Business: The First Four by Russell Sanjeck

By Russell Sanjeck

This quantity makes a speciality of advancements within the song company within the 20th century, together with vaudeville, song bins, the connection of Hollywood to the track company, the "fall and upward thrust" of the list enterprise within the Thirties, new know-how (TV, FM, and the LP checklist) after global warfare II, the dominance of rock-and-roll and the massive elevate within the tune enterprise through the Fifties and Sixties, and eventually the altering song enterprise scene from 1967 to the current, specially relating to govt rules, track licensing, and the list company.

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The compulsory-licensing requirement was punishment visited on the eighty-seven publishers (who owned 381,598 compositions) who had been party to the Aeolian plan and equally on the 117 music firms (controlling 503,597 pieces) which had not. Among the latter were many Tin Pan Alley houses, newcomers to the business, who had brought new promotion techniques that were raising sheet-music sales and profits to new heights, chiefly because of song-plugging exploitation. 5 million. In 1909, more than 27 million phonograph records and cylinders were manufactured, having a wholesale value of nearly $12 million.

Burkan offered as a model to the six writers and their publishers who gathered in October 1913 SACEM's Articles of Association, which included a stipulation that performance income be divided equally among the writer of the music, of the words, and their publisher. Four months later, another meeting was held, at which, the Times reported, "ragtime writers joined hands with publishers of chamber music . . when composers of every kind and condition of music and every big music publishing concern" met to form the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, for a term of ninety-nine years.

In the following twelve years, only three actions involving public performance of musical compositions were brought, all dealing with its use in the professional theater. The 1909 provision mentioned both dramatic and musical performing rights, but no effort was made to license the public performance for profit of music in America until 1911. That year, the world's first performing-rights society, the French Societe des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de Musique, again opened offices in New York, for the purpose of collecting five percent of gross receipts from 38 American Popular Music and Its Business concert managers and theatrical producers when French compositions registered in the United States were played in public.

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